IPv4 to Binary Conversion

CIDR is a notation for describing blocks of IP addresses and is used heavily in various networking configurations.
IP addresses contain 4 octets, each consisting of 8 bits giving values between 0 and 255.
The decimal value that comes after the slash is the number of bits consisting of the routing prefix.
This in turn can be translated into a netmask, and also designates how many available addresses are in the block.