IoT Security 1.1 Chapter 2 Quiz Answers

IoT Security 1.1 Chapter 2 Quiz Answers

1. Which domain of the ETSI model includes management functions such as data analytics and connectivity management?

  • application
  • M2M
  • transport
  • network

Explanation: The application domain is where management functions can occur such as data analytics, connectivity management, smart energy management, fleet management, or any application that consumes the data from IoT devices.

2. Which layer of the OSI model contains protocols used for process-to-process communications?

  • physical
  • data link
  • transport
  • application

Explanation: The application layer of the OSI model contains protocols used for process-to-process communications. The transport layer segments, transfers, and reassembles data. The data link layer exchanges frames between devices. The physical layer provides bit transmission.

3. What are the three broad requirements specified by the CIA security triad?

  • Data must be protected from unauthorized access.
  • Data must be protected from theft and unuthorized alteration or destruction.
  • Data must always be acessible by the people who need to use it when they need to use it.
  • Data must be protected from firmware alteration.
  • Data should never leave the location from which it was gathered.
  • Data must be retained for an appropriate amount of time before it can be deleted.

Explanation: The requirements of the CIA triad are:

  • Confidentiality – This requirement maintains control on information access and disclosure. Transmitted and stored data is encrypted for privacy.
  • Integrity – This requirement prevents improper addition, modification, or destruction of data and information. A hash of the data should be created prior to transmission and the hash should be tamper-proof. Access controls should also be in place to protect stored data.
  • Availability – This requirement ensures information can be accessed when it is required. This means that the IoT devices can communicate on the network so that they can submit data to and can be controlled by IoT applications. This also means that devices can not be damaged or tampered with.

4. What is the primary focus of data management in the IoT realm?

  • how things are connected to the networks
  • when and where data is processed
  • which data protocols are used
  • what applications are being used

Explanation: The focus of IoT data management is when and where data is processed, such as in the data processed at the mist layer, fog layer, or in the cloud.

5. What is the function of the DREAD tool?

  • It is used to prevent threats from attacking the system.
  • It is used to identify threats.
  • It is used to mitigate threats.
  • It is used to rate threats.

Explanation: DREAD is used to rate threats. DREAD is an acronym that stands for the variables used to quantify, compare, and prioritize the amount of risk in each threat.

6. What is a function that is provided by the network layer of the OSI model?

  • exchanging frames between devices
  • placing data on the network medium
  • segmenting, transferring, and reassembling data
  • directing data packets to destination hosts on other networks

Explanation: The network layer is primarily concerned with passing data from a source host to a destination host on another network using a default path or route.

7. Which level of the IoT reference model converts data into information that is suitable for storage and higher level processing?

  • data abstraction
  • fog computing
  • application
  • data accumulation

Explanation: The edge (fog) computing (data element analysis and transformation) level of the IoT reference model converts data into information that is suitable for storage and higher level processing.

8. Which function is provided by the data abstraction level of the IoT reference model?

  • to interpret information based on the nature of the device data and business needs
  • to render data and data storage in ways that enable application development
  • to enable data in motion to be converted to data at rest
  • to transcend multiple applications to include the communication and collaboration required between people and processes

Explanation: The data abstraction (aggregation and access) level of the IoT reference model is focused on rendering data and its storage in ways to enable application development.

9. Match the category to the security objective of the Threat Model Analysis of an IoT System.

  • reputation → Document any possible impact on the reputation of the organization if the IoT system is attacked.,
  • financial → Document the financial risks of the various aspects of the IoT system so that management can determine which level of risk is acceptable.,
  • availability guarantees → Document the expected availability and guaranteed uptime of the IoT system.,
  • privacy and regulation → Document the impact of privacy concerns as well as regulation requirements.,
  • identity → Document the controls that are in place to ensure that evidence is collected on the identity of users accessing and using the IoT system.

10. Which task in the step of decomposing the IoT system gathers information about approaches to input validation, authentication, authorization, configuration, and any other areas of the IoT system that are vulnerable?

  • Document the security profile.
  • Identify trust boundaries.
  • Identify entry points.
  • Identify privileged code.

Explanation: During the step of decomposing the IoT system, information about the IoT system can be gathered using these tasks:

  • Identify trust boundaries between trusted components and untrusted components.
  • Identify data flow between devices, the communications network, and the applications
  • Identify entry points where data is input into the system
  • Identify privileged code within the IoT system where secure resources are stored and manipulated.
  • Document the security profile to include approaches to input validation, authentication, authorization, configuration, and any other areas of the IoT system that are vulnerable.

11. Which task in the step of decomposing the IoT system gathers information where secure resources are stored and manipulated to see who has elevated rights?

  • Identify data flow.
  • Identify trust boundaries.
  • Identify entry points.
  • Identify sensitive data.

Explanation: During the step of decomposing the IoT system, information about the IoT system can be gathered using these tasks:

  • Identify trust boundaries between trusted components and untrusted components.
  • Identify data flow between devices, the communications network, and the applications.
  • Identify entry points where data is input into the system.
  • Identify sensitive data within the IoT system where secure resources are stored and manipulated.
  • Document the security profile to include approaches to input validation, authentication, authorization, configuration, and any other areas of the IoT system that are vulnerable.

12. What are two benefits of using a layered model to explain protocols and operations? (Choose two.)

  • They provide an exclusive language to describe networking functions and capabilities.
  • They assist in protocol design because protocols operating at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below.
  • They prevent technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below.
  • They limit competition because products from different vendors will not work together.
  • They describe which functions occur at each layer of the model to encourage the removal of industry standardization.

Explanation: There are many benefits to using a layered model to explain protocols and operations:

  • They assist in protocol design because protocols operating at a specific layer have defined information that they act upon and a defined interface to the layers above and below.
  • They foster competition because products from different vendors can work together.
  • They prevent technology or capability changes in one layer from affecting other layers above and below.
  • They provide a common language to describe networking functions and capabilities.

13. Which document created in the Threat Model Analysis process will describe the IoT system architecture?

  • the expected availability and guaranteed uptime of the IoT system
  • the impact of privacy concerns as well as regulation requirements
  • the controls that are in place to ensure that evidence is collected on the identity of users accessing and using the IoT system
  • the components of the IoT system at each layer

Explanation: During the step of documenting the IoT system architecture of the Threat Model Analysis for an IoT System, the documents created should include the following:

  • Components of the IoT system at each layer
  • The flow of data between components and between layers
  • The technologies, protocols, and standards used to implement the IoT system

14. Match the term to the description.

  • vulnerabilities → weaknesses in the IoT system that could be exploited by a threat,
  • threats → potential dangers to any asset such as data or components of the IoT system,
  • attack surfaces → different points where attackers could get into a system and where they could get data out of the system,
  • threat actors → people or entities who exploit vulnerabilities

15. After threats are rated, what is the next step recommended by the Threat Model Analysis for an IoT system?

  • Document the IoT system architecture.
  • Decompose the IoT system.
  • Recommend mitigation.
  • Identify security objectives.

Explanation: After identifying and rating the threats, an organization must determine the mitigation techniques needed for each threat and select the most appropriate technology that would reduce or eliminate the threat.

16. In the IoT reference model, at which layer or layers of the model is security implemented?

  • application level
  • connectivity level
  • physical devices & controllers level
  • all levels of the IoT reference model

Explanation: Security must permeate all the levels of the IoT reference model.

17. Which task in the step of decomposing the IoT system can gather information about where data is input into the IoT system?

  • Identify privileged code.
  • Identify trust boundaries.
  • Identify data flow.
  • Identify entry points.

Explanation: During the step of decomposing the IoT system, information about the IoT system can be gathered using these tasks:

Identify trust boundaries between trusted components and untrusted components.
Identify data flow between devices, the communications network, and the applications.
Identify entry points where data is input into the system.
Identify privileged code within the IoT system where secure resources are stored and manipulated.
Document the security profile to include approaches to input validation, authentication, authorization, configuration, and any other areas of the IoT system that are vulnerable.

18. Which three types of documents should be included when documenting the IoT system architecture using the Threat Model Analysis for an IoT System? (Choose three.)

  • any possible impact on the reputation of the organization if the IoT system is attacked
  • the financial risks of the various aspects of the IoT system
  • the technologies, protocols, and standards used to implement the IoT system
  • components of the IoT system at each layer
  • the impact of privacy concerns as well as regulation requirements
  • the flow of data between components and between layers

Explanation: During the step of documenting the IoT system architecture of the Threat Model Analysis for an IoT System, the documents created should include the following:

Components of the IoT system at each layer
The flow of data between components and between layers
The technologies, protocols, and standards used to implement the IoT system

19. In the context of IoT in the manufacturing industry, which model segments devices and equipment into hierarchical functions?

  • ETSI
  • IoT
  • TCP/IP
  • Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy

Explanation: The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy is a common and well-understood model in the manufacturing industry that segments devices and equipment into hierarchical functions.

20. At which functional layer of the IoT simplified model would an aircraft turbine RPM sensor exist?

  • cloud
  • network
  • device
  • application

Explanation: The device functional layer of the simplified IoT model would include specific devices, sensors, and actuators.

21. What is the function of the STRIDE tool?

  • It is used to identify threats.
  • It is used to mitigate threats.
  • It is used to prevent threats from attacking the system.
  • It is used to rate threats.

Explanation: STRIDE is used to identify the threats. STRIDE stands for the following categories of threats:

Spoofing identity
Tampering with data
Repudiation
Information disclosure
Denial of service
Elevation of privilege

22. Which domain of the ETSI model includes sensors and gateways connecting to the network through Bluetooth?

  • transport
  • network
  • application
  • M2M

Explanation: The M2M device domain is where end devices, such as sensors, actuators, controllers, and gateways, connect to the network through various protocols, such as the IEEE 802.15.4 and Bluetooth.

23. What is the function of the network access layer in the TCP/IP model?

  • represents data to the user and controls dialogs
  • controls hardware devices and media
  • determines the best path through the network
  • supports communications across diverse networks

Explanation: The functions of the TCP/IP layers are as follows:

The network access layer controls hardware devices and media.
The internet layer determines the best path through the network.
The application layer represents data to the user and controls dialogs.
The transport layer supports communications across diverse networks.

24. Which statement describes IFTTT (If This Then That)?

  • It uses Microsoft Windows APIs to link a computer and a smartphone.
  • It is a logic block used in Python programming.
  • It is a simple web service that allows the connection of an event to an action.
  • It is a simplified and easy-to-use graphical programming tool.

Explanation: IFTTT (If This Then That) is a simple web service that allows the connection of an event to an action.
The correct answer is: It is a simple web service that allows the connection of an event to an action.


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