13.6.3 Module Quiz – Network Virtualization (Answers)

13.6.3 Module Quiz – Network Virtualization Answers

1. A company uses a cloud-based payroll system. Which cloud computing technology is this company using?

  • infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
  • wireless as a service (WaaS)
  • software as a service (SaaS)
  • browser as a service (BaaS)

Explanation: Curriculum Reference: Module 7.2
This item is based on information contained in the presentation.
There is no such thing as BaaS. Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) is when key network devices such as routers and firewalls are leased from a provider. Wireless as a service (WaaS) is when a provider provides wireless connectivity at a fixed monthly cost.

2. For a data center, what is the difference in the server virtualization data traffic compared with the traditional client-server model?

  • There is more data traffic flowing from virtual servers to clients.
  • Data traffic from clients will be routed to multiple virtual servers.
  • There are significant data exchanges between virtual servers.
  • More network control traffic is generated between virtual servers and clients.

Explanation: With server virtualization, traffic in a data center contains a considerable amount of data exchanges between virtual servers (referred to as East-West traffic). For the client-server model, the traffic pattern between virtual servers and clients will not change. From a routing perspective, client requests to a virtual server will still be routed to that server.

3. Which component in a traditional infrastructure device provides Layer 2 and Layer 3 functions to create data paths within a network?

  • forwarding information base
  • control plane
  • adjacency table
  • data plane

Explanation: An infrastructure device contains the control plane and data plane. The control plane contains Layer 2 and Layer 3 route forwarding mechanisms that construct loop-free paths within a network. The data plane of each device is used to forward traffic flows.

4. Which network traffic management technology is a basic element in SDN implementations?

  • OpenStack
  • OpenFlow
  • Interface to the Routing System
  • IEEE 802.1aq

Explanation: OpenFlow was developed at Stanford University to manage traffic between routers, switches, and wireless access points and a controller. It is the original and widely implemented southbound API for SDN.​ OpenStack is a virtualization and orchestration platform available to build scalable cloud environments and provide an infrastructure as a service (IaaS) solution. It is often used with Cisco ACI. IEEE 802.1aq is a replacement to the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP) that allows all paths to be active with multiple equal cost paths.​ Interface to the Routing System uses a fast path protocol to populate the network device routing table.​

5. Which two technologies are core components of Cisco ACI architecture? (Choose two.)

  • Application Network Profile
  • Application Policy Infrastructure Controller
  • OpenFlow enabled switches
  • Interface to the Routing System
  • Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links

Explanation: The Cisco ACI architecture contains three core components:
– Application Network Profile (ANP) – An ANP is a collection of end-point groups (EPG), their connections, and the policies that define those connections.
– Application Policy Infrastructure Controller (APIC) – APIC is a centralized software controller that manages and operates a scalable ACI clustered fabric.
– Cisco Nexus 9000 Series switches – Provides an application-aware switching fabric and works with an APIC to manage the virtual and physical network infrastructure.
OpenFlow enabled switches are required in SDN implementation. Both Interface to the Routing System (I2RS) and Transparent Interconnection of Lots of Links (TRILL) are different approaches developed for network virtualization.

6. Which Cloud computing service would be best for a new organization that cannot afford physical servers and networking equipment and must purchase network services on-demand?

  • ITaaS
  • PaaS
  • Iaas
  • SaaS

Explanation: Infrastructure as a service (IaaS) provides an environment where users have an on-demand infrastructure that they can install any platform as needed.

7. Which services are provided by a private cloud?

  • encrypted data storage in cloud computing
  • secure communications between sensors and actuators
  • online services to trusted vendors
  • multiple internal IT services in an enterprise

Explanation: Large enterprises typically have their own data center to manage data storage and data processing needs. The data center can be used to serve internal IT needs. In other words, the data center becomes a private cloud, a cloud computing infrastructure just for internal services.

8. What are two reasons an organization might use cloud computing? (Choose two.)

  • enables global access to corporate data
  • provides power and physical plants capable of meeting increased requirements
  • enables connectivity between disparate networks
  • reduces the time needed for maintenance windows
  • increases corporate use of technology resources

Explanation: A cloud solution is used for many reasons, but some of the common services and reasons to use a cloud-based solution are as follows:
– access to corporate data through the Internet
– outsourced services
– housing for IT equipment, maintenance, and management
– reduced costs for equipment, electricity, disaster prevention, physical plant (room, cabling, air conditioning, water cooling, etc.), and personnel

9. What is a characteristic of data flow processing in SDN?

  • The SDN controller attaches an entry to each packet to identify the flow.
  • The SDN controller routes a data flow first and the data plane will use policies to permit or deny the flow.
  • Each data flow through the network must be approved by the SDN controller first.
  • OpenStack is used to construct the entry in switches to facilitate data forwarding.

Explanation: In SDN architecture, each data flow through the network must first get permission from the SDN controller. If the controller allows a flow, it computes a route for the flow to take and adds an entry for that flow in each of the switches along the path. Communication between the controller and the switches typically uses an open standard protocol and an API, such as OpenFlow.

10. What are three abstraction layers of a computer system? (Choose three.)

  • firmware
  • network
  • hardware
  • services
  • security
  • data

Explanation: Abstraction layers help describe network protocols within the architecture of a computer system. Each layer uses programming code to interface with the layers above and below. The following abstraction layers make up a computer system:
– Hardware
– Firmware
– Assembler
– Kernel
– OS
– Services

11. In software defined network architecture, what function is removed from network devices and performed by an SDN controller?

  • control plane
  • security
  • data plane
  • application policies

Explanation: In network virtualization, the control plane function of each network device is removed and is performed by a centralized controller. The controller then can communicate control plane functions to each of the network devices. This allows the network devices to focus all resources on forwarding plane functions.

12. Which term describes the data exchanges between virtual servers in a data center?

  • backbone traffic
  • north-south traffic
  • vertical traffic
  • east-west traffic

Explanation: With server virtualization, the data exchanges between virtual servers in a data center is referred to as East-West traffic.

13. How is the control plane modified to operate with network virtualization?

  • The control plane on each device is interconnected to a dedicated high- speed network.
  • A hypervisor is installed in each device to allow multiple instances of the control plane.
  • The control plane function is consolidated into a centralized controller.
  • Control plane redundancy is added to each network device.

Explanation: In network virtualization design, the control plane function is removed from each network device and is performed by a centralized controller. The centralized controller communicates control plane functions to each network device and each device focuses on forwarding data.

14. Which Cloud computing service would be best for an organization that needs to collaboratively create applications and deliver them over the web?

  • SaaS
  • IaaS
  • ITaaS
  • PaaS

Explanation: Platform as a service (PaaS) provides a collaborative environment where multiple developers can create software and host an application through a Cloud provider.

15. Which of the following is the term for the extension of the internet structure to billions of connected devices?

  • BYOD
  • Digitization
  • IoT
  • M2M

Explanation: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a phrase that denotes the billions of electronic devices that are now able to connect to data networks and the internet.

16. Which cloud computing service would provide the use of network hardware such as routers and switches for a particular company?

  • Browser as a service (BaaS)
  • Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
  • Software as a service (SaaS)
  • Wireless as a service (WaaS)

Explanation: With IaaS, the cloud provider is responsible for access to the network equipment, virtualized network services, and supporting network infrastructure.

17. What technology allows users to access data anywhere and at any time?

  • cloud computing
  • data analytics
  • micromarketing
  • virtualization

Explanation: Cloud computing enables access to organizational data anywhere and at any time; streamlines the organization’s IT operations by subscribing only the needed services; eliminates or reduces the need for onsite IT equipment, maintenance, and management; reduces costs for equipment, energy, physical plant requirements, and personnel training needs; and enables rapid responses to increasing data volume requirements.

18. Which cloud model provides services for a specific organization or entity?

  • community cloud
  • hybrid cloud
  • private cloud
  • public cloud

Explanation: A private cloud’s applications and services are intended for a specific organization or entity, such as the government.

19. What is a benefit of virtualization?

  • guarantee of power
  • improvement of business practices
  • supply of consistent air flow
  • support of live migration

Explanation: A benefit of virtualization is increased server uptime with advanced redundant fault-tolerance features such as live migration, storage migration, high availability, and distributed resource scheduling.

20. What is a difference between the functions of cloud computing and virtualization?

  • Cloud computing provides services on web-based access, whereas virtualization provides services on data access through virtualized internet connections.
  • Cloud computing requires hypervisor technology, whereas virtualization is a fault-tolerance technology.
  • Cloud computing separates the application from the hardware, whereas virtualization separates the OS from the underlying hardware.
  • Cloud computing utilizes data center technology, whereas virtualization is not used in data centers.

Explanation: The terms cloud computing and virtualization are often used interchangeably; however, they mean different things. Virtualization is the foundation of cloud computing. Without it, cloud computing, as it is most widely implemented, would not be possible. Cloud computing separates the application from the hardware. Virtualization separates the OS from the hardware.

21. Which of the following applies to a Type 2 hypervisor?

  • best suited for enterprise environments
  • does not require management console software
  • has direct access to server hardware resources
  • installs directly on hardware

Explanation: A Type 2 hypervisor, also called a hosted hypervisor, is software that creates and runs VM instances. A big advantage of Type 2 hypervisors is that management console software is not required.

22. Which is a characteristic of a Type 1 hypervisor?

  • best suited for consumers and not for an enterprise environment
  • does not require management console software
  • installed directly on a server
  • installed on an existing operating system

Explanation: A Type 1 hypervisor is installed directly on the server or networking hardware. Instances of an OS are installed on the hypervisor. Type 1 hypervisors have direct access to the hardware resources; therefore, they are more efficient than hosted architectures. Type 1 hypervisors improve scalability, performance, and robustness.

23. Which technology virtualizes the control plane and moves it to a centralized controller?

  • cloud computing
  • fog computing
  • IaaS
  • SDN

Explanation: Software-defined networking (SDN) is a network architecture that has been developed to virtualize the network. For example, SDN can virtualize the control plane. It is also known as controller-based SDN. SDN moves the control plane from each network device to a central network intelligence and policy-making entity called the SDN controller.

24. Which two layers of the OSI model are associated with SDN network control plane functions that make forwarding decisions? (Choose two.)

  • Layer 1
  • Layer 2
  • Layer 3
  • Layer 4
  • Layer 5

Explanation: The control plane contains Layer 2 and Layer 3 route forwarding mechanisms, such as routing protocol neighbor tables and topology tables, IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables, STP, and the ARP table. Information sent to the control plane is processed by the CPU.

25. Which type of hypervisor would most likely be used in a data center?

  • Nexus 9000 switch
  • Oracle VM VirtualBox
  • Type 1
  • Type 2

Explanation: Using Type 1 hypervisors is also called the “bare metal” approach because the hypervisor is installed directly on the hardware. Type 1 hypervisors are usually used on enterprise servers and data center networking devices.

26. Which type of hypervisor would most likely be used by a consumer?

  • Nexus 9000 switch
  • Oracle VM VirtualBox
  • Type 1
  • Type 2

Explanation: Type 2 hypervisors are very popular with consumers and with organizations experimenting with virtualization. Common Type 2 hypervisors include Virtual PC, VMware Workstation, Oracle VM VirtualBox, VMware Fusion, and Mac OS X Parallels.

27. What component is considered the brains of the ACI architecture and translates application policies?

  • Application Network Profile endpoints
  • Application Policy Infrastructure Controller
  • hypervisor
  • Nexus 9000 switch

Explanation: The APIC is considered to be the brains of the ACI architecture. An APIC is a centralized software controller that manages and operates a scalable ACI clustered fabric. It is designed for programmability and centralized management. It translates application policies into network programming.

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