3.11.1 Packet Tracer – Network Security Exploration – Physical Mode Answers
- Part 1: Explore the Networks
- Part 2: Implement Security Measures
Background / Scenario
In this Packet Tracer Physical Mode (PTPM) activity, you will explore and implement several security procedures in different locations within the city of Greenville, North Carolina. Included are networks in a Data Center, an ISP, a Coffee Shop, and a Home.
The Data Center is provisioned for environmental and physical security. There is also software included to maintain access control. You will install an Internet of Things (IoT) smoke detector.
The Coffee Shop offers free wireless access to their patrons. You will implement a VPN to secure traffic.
The Home includes an office, a student’s bedroom, and a living room. You will configure two home wireless LANs (WLANs) to require authentication for two different user types: family members and guests. These networks will also be configured with MAC address filtering to restrict access.
Note: This activity is not graded. However, you will use a variety of methods to verify the configurations you implement.
Part 1: Explore the Networks
In this part, you will explore the networks in the Data Center, ISP, Coffee Shop, and Home.
Step 1: Explore Greenville.
The activity opens with a view of North Carolina, USA. All the tasks in this activity occur in Greenville. Click Greenville to enter city view. There are four locations to explore: Data Center, ISP, Home, and Coffee Shop.
Step 2: Explore the rooms in the Data Center.
a. There are two rooms and a variety of devices to explore including a server room, the POP, an IoT server, two access points, a laptop, and several IoT devices connected to the network.
b. Click Data Center Server Room. Notice the majority of devices are servers. In a real data center, there would be hundreds of racks filled with servers. Switches are linking the servers together with redundant connections. A router is providing connectivity to the POP, which then connects to the ISP.
What is the name of the router that is located in this wiring closet?
The router is DC1_R1.
c. Navigate up one level to the Data Center.
Step 3: Investigate the devices in the Data Center POP.
a. Click Data Center POP. What cable type is used to connect the DC_Edge-Rtr1 to the ISP?
They are connected using fiber.
What device is doing the translation of private Data Center addresses into public addresses?
The DC_Edge-Rtr1 is doing NAT.
b. Click DC_Edge-Rtr1 > CLI. Enter the show access-list command to view the access list. This access list permits only specific traffic into the Data Center. In this simulation, HTTP, HTTPS, IPsec, and FTP traffic are permitted. All other traffic is blocked.
c. Investigate the interfaces. What interface and in which direction is this access list applied?
Inbound on g0/0/0
Note: The access-list commands in this simulation are limited. On a real edge router the access lists would be much more complex and even more restrictive to protect all networking devices and data within the Data Center.
Step 4: Investigate the IoT devices configured to connect to the DC IoT Server.
a. Navigate to the Data Center. In the Data Center POP room, click the laptop on the desk, and then Desktop > Web Browser.
a. Enter the IP address 172.31.0.2, which is the DC IoT Server.
b. For username and password, enter admin and ciscorocks.
c. What devices are currently being used to protect the networking equipment in the Data Center from environmental factors and physical security?
For environmental protection, the data center has IoT monitors for humidity, temperature, and air conditioning. For physical security, there are monitored doors and sirens.
d. In the list of IoT devices, click Humidity Monitor to expand it. What is the current humidity level?
Answers will vary but will be around 75%
Step 5: Investigate the monitored door and siren.
a. In the list of IoT devices, click Door to expand it. Notice the Open indicator is Red. This means that the door is closed.
a. In the list of IoT devices, click Siren. Notice the On indicator is Red. This means that the siren is not on.
b. Keep the Web Browser window in view and locate the Siren next to the Door in the Data Center POP.
c. To open the Door, click Unlock in the list of IoT devices and then hold the ALT key down and Left Click the Door. When the Door opens the Siren turns Red.
d. In the Web Browser window, the Open indicator turned Green, meaning that the door is open. The Siren On indicator is also Green, meaning that the Siren is going off. Close the Door again by holding down the ALT key and left clicking the Door.
e. In the Web Browser window, under Door, click Lock. Try to open the door again by holding the ALT key down and left clicking the Door. The Door should not open.
Step 6: Investigate the thermostat.
a. In the list of IoT devices, click Thermostat to expand the available features and variables. At what temperature will the air conditioner turn on?
a. In the Data Center, click the Thermostat > Config, and then Wireless0 under INTERFACE. What is the IP address for the Thermostat?
Answers may vary since it is provided by DHC but it will be in the range 172.31.0.05 – 172.31.0.20.
b. On the DC_Laptop, close the Web Browser, if necessary. Click Command Prompt and ping the Thermostat. The ping should be successful.
Step 7: Explore the ISP, Coffee Shop, and Home networks.
a. Navigate to the ISP. The ISP contains two routers, a DNS server, and a Central Office router that connects the Coffee Shop and Home to the internet.
a. Navigate to the Coffee Shop. How do clients connect to the Coffee Shop network?
Wireless or WLAN
b. What type of media is used to connect the café to the internet?
c. What devices are used to create the Coffee Shop network? Click the Wiring Cabinet to see additional devices.
Devices include a router, a cable modem, a wireless LAN controller, and 2 access points.
d. Click each laptop in the Coffee Shop. Click the Config tab, and then Wireless0 under INTERFACE. What IP addresses do they have?
Answers may vary as DHCP is in use.192.168.0.11, 192.168.0.12
e. Navigate to the Home network. You will configure the network later in this activity. Investigate the devices in the network. How does the Home connect to the ISP?
The Home network will connect to the ISP via cable since there is a cable modem as one of the devices.
f. What devices require connectivity within the house?
a home router, 2 laptops and two wired PCs
Part 2: Implement Security Measures
In this part, you configure wireless security for the smoke detector in the Data Center, a virtual private network (VPN) in the Coffee Shop, and two wireless networks in the Home.
Step 1: Configure an IoT smoke detector in the Data Center.
a. Navigate back to the Data Center. Click the Smoke Detector on the wall in the Data Center Server Room, and then click the Config tab. Complete the following configurations:
1) Modify the Display Name to Smoke Detector-DC1.
2) In the Gateway/DNS IPv4 section, enable DHCP.
3) In the IoT Server section, modify the Remote Server to have the IP address 172.31.0.2. The username is admin, and the password is ciscorocks.
a. Click Wireless0 under INTERFACE and complete the following configurations:
1) Modify the SSID to DC_WLAN.
2) Change the Authentication to WPA2-PSK and set the PSK Pass Phrase to ciscorocks.
3) Return to Settings. In the IoT Server section, click Connect. The registration server will update the default gateway and IP address of the smoke detector through DHCP.
Note: The Connect button changes to Refresh after you have successfully connected.
b. Close the Smoke Detector-DC1, and then click the laptop in the Data Center POP. If you closed the Web Browser previously, reopen it now and authenticate with the IoT Server at 18.104.22.168.2 with the username admin and password ciscorocks.
c. Notice the Smoke Detector-DC1 is now added to the list of IoT devices. Click Smoke Detector-DC1 in the Web browser. The Alarm indicator should be red, meaning that the alarm is not activated.
Step 2: Create a VPN on a laptop in the Coffee Shop to secure traffic.
Free Wi-Fi in businesses like the coffee shop is usually “open”, meaning that there is no privacy and traffic can be easily captured. To avoid that issue, you will use a VPN client on one of the laptops to connect to an FTP server in the Data Center. The tunnel created by the VPN will encrypt any data transferred between the laptop and the server. The edge router in the Data Center is already configured for VPN.
a. Navigate to the Coffee Shop, and then click the VPN Laptop.
b. Click Desktop > Command Prompt and enter the ipconfig command. What is the IP address assigned to this laptop?
a. To speed up convergence in Packet Tracer, ping the VPN server which is provided by the DC_Edge-Rtr1 at 10.0.0.2.
b. Close the Command Prompt window, and then click VPN. Enter the following configuration:
Group Key: CISCO
Host IP (Server IP): 10.0.0.2
c. Click Connect. Click OK to the VPN is connected message. If you have any issues, be sure your configuration is correct and that you previously successfully pinged 10.0.0.2. The VPN Configuration window now displays the Client IP. What is the IP address?
Answer will vary but it will be in the 172.18.1.150 – 200 range.
d. Navigate to the Data Center, and then click Data Center POP > DC_Edge-Rtr1.
e. Click the CLI tab. In privileged EXEC mode, enter the show crypto isakmp sa command to display active IPsec security associations. What status is listed in the output of the command?
f. What destination IP address is listed in the output? Can you determine to which device this IP address belongs?
10.1.0.11 which is the IP address of the Coffee Shop router internet facing interface G0/0
g. To test the VPN, return to the VPN Laptop. In the Command Prompt window, enter the ftp 172.19.0.3 command to connect to the FTP server in the Data Center. When prompted, enter the username remote and the password ciscorocks.
Note: If the connection fails, verify that the VPN is still connected.
C:\> ftp 172.19.0.3 Trying to connect...172.19.0.3 Connected to 172.19.0.3 220- Welcome to PT Ftp server Username: remote 331- Username ok, need password Password: ciscorocks 230- Logged in (passive mode On) ftp>
h. At the ftp> prompt enter the dir command to view the contents of the FTP server. What is the name of the file listed?
i. Enter the get filename command replacing filename with the name of the file to download to the laptop.
ftp> get PTsecurity.txt Reading file PTsecurity.txt from 172.19.0.3: File transfer in progress… [Transfer complete – 92 bytes] 92 bytes copied in 0.019 secs (4842 bytes/sec) ftp>
j. Enter the quit command to exit your FTP session.
k. To view the contents of the file, close the Command Prompt window and open the Text Editor.
l. Click the File > Open. Click the downloaded file and then click Open. What is the first word in the message?
m. In the Coffee Shop, click the other laptop, and then click Desktop > Command Prompt. Attempt to ping the FTP server at 172.19.0.3. Was it successful? Why or why not?
The ping should not be successful because this laptop does not have VPN configured and the edge router in the DC is configured with an ACL that denies pings.
n. On real equipment, you would require a VPN service and their VPN client software loaded on the laptop. Use the internet to research different VPN services/applications available for laptops, tablets, and smartphones. What are three examples of VPN services/applications that you could use on an open wireless network to protect your data?
Answers will vary. Examples of VPN applications are CyberGhost, IPVanish, and NordVPN.
Step 3: Configure secure WLANs in the Home network.
For the Home network, you will do the initial wireless setup, create separate networks for the home office and guests, secure each network with strong authentication, and include MAC address filtering.
a. Navigate to the Home. Investigate the cabling. Notice that the two PCs, one in the home office and the other in the bedroom, use a wired connection. The laptop in the office will use the home office WLAN and laptop in the living room will use the guest WLAN.
b. Use the zoom tool (or Ctrl + scroll middle mouse wheel) to zoom in on the home office.
c. Click the Home Router. It is the left device sitting on the shelf behind the desk. Then click the GUI tab. The router is using DHCP to automatically receive IP addressing from the ISP.
d. In the Network Setup section, configure the following setting:
IP Address: 192.168.0.254
Subnet Mask: 255.255.255.0
Start IP Address: 192.168.0.10
Maximum number of Users: 25
Static DNS 1: 10.2.0.125
e. Scroll to the bottom and click Save Settings.
f. Scroll back to the top and click Wireless. Under the Basic Wireless Settings submenu, configure HomeNet as the SSID for each of WLAN and disable all SSID broadcasts.
g. Scroll to the bottom and click Save Settings.
h. Scroll back to the top and click the Wireless Security submenu. Configure the following settings for all three WLANs.
Security Mode: WPA2 Personal
i. Scroll to the bottom and click Save Settings.
j. Scroll back to the top and click the Guest Network submenu. Configure the following settings for all three WLANs:
Enable Guest Profile
Network Name (SSID): GuestNet
Enable Broadcast SSID
Security Mode: WPA2 Personal
k. Scroll to the bottom and click Save Settings.
a. Scroll back to the top and click the Wireless MAC Filter submenu. Permit the MAC address for the laptop in the Home Office, which is 00:01:42:2B:9E:9D. Be sure to permit the MAC address for all three WLANs. There is a dropdown menu at the top next to Wireless Port where you can switch from 2.4G to 5G(1) and 5G(2).
b. Scroll to the bottom and click Save Settings.
c. In the Home Office, click the laptop on the table in front of the couch, and then click the Config tab. Configure the wireless settings necessary to access the HomeNet WLAN.
d. Click Desktop tab > Web Browser. Enter the URL www.ptsecurity.com and click Go. It may take a few seconds for the web page to display. If you get a Request Timeout message, click Go again.
e. Navigate back to the Home and zoom in on the living room. Click the Guest Laptop, and then Wireless0 under the INTERFACE section. Configure the wireless settings necessary to access the GuestNet WLAN. Under IP Configuration, make sure DHCP is selected. Did the laptop receive IP addressing from the Home Router? Why or why not?
The Guest Laptop cannot connect to the network because the Home Router has been configured to filter based on MAC addresses. The MAC address filter does not contain the MAC address for the Guest Laptop.
f. Navigate back to the GUI tab for the Home Router and correct the issue.
The student must correct the issue by adding the MAC address for the Guest Laptop (00:01:63:E9:92:60) to the Wireless MAC address Filter on the Home Router and try to connect to the GuestNet again. It should be successful.
g. Navigate back to the Guest Laptop. In the Wireless0 > IP Configuration section, you should now see IP addressing from the pool you configured earlier on the Home Router. If not, toggle between DHCP and Static to refresh the DHCP requests.
h. Click Desktop > Command Prompt and ping the DNS server in the ISP at 10.2.0.125 to test access to external devices. The ping should be successful.
i. Test access to any other device in the Home network. Are these pings successful? Why or why not?
Pings should fail. This guest network was configured to not allow guests to access local resources. Hint: Check the HomeRouter1 settings for Wireless / Guest Network.
j. Close the Command Prompt and click Web Browser. Test access to www.ptsecurity.com. Access should be successful.
a. List all of the different security approaches that were used in this situation.
Answers and order will vary.
– Positioning IoT devices such as fire alarms, thermostats, humidifiers, and air conditioners within the Data center to protect devices and data from environmental issues.
– Protecting access to the Data Center by using door locking sensors and sirens.
– Creating a VPN in a situation where free Wi–Fi is open to all. This VPN, encrypts and secures all data that uses the tunneling technology.
– Creating a guest network in the home so that guests have access to external sites but not inside information.
– Creating both the home network and guest network with strong authentication so that it limits access to homeowners and their guests.
– Establishing filtering of access to wireless networks based on MAC addresses so that it limits access to specific known devices.
– Using access lists to filter access to the Data Center networks.
b. In a situation where real equipment is used, list other suggestions that could be added to this scenario to make it more secure.
Answers and order will vary.
– Using biometric devices such as fingerprint or retinal scanners for entry into secure areas within the data center.
– Use stronger passwords and passphrases for access to networks and devices. Strong passwords should be greater than 8 characters, including upper-case and lower-case letters, numeric digits, and special characters.
– Add a VPN for the HomeNet network to protect all homeowner data travelling externally.
– Install redundant links between the Data center and the ISP so there is not a single point of failure.
– Create a second backup Data center in case of an extreme disruption of service.