1. By default (without any configuration on a switch), what will determine which switch is the root bridge?

• The bridge priority
• The extended system ID
• The MAC address of the switch
• The bridge ID

Explanation: Without configuration changes, all switches will have the default STP priority of 32,768. If all priorities are the same, the switch with the lowest MAC address value will become the root bridge.

2. The root bridge will be the switch with the:

• Lowest bridge ID
• Highest bridge ID
• Lowest port priority
• Highest port priority

Explanation: The switch with the lowest bridge ID will become the root bridge.

3. The port closest to the root bridge in terms of least overall cost (best path) to the root bridge is the:

• Designated port
• Blocked port or non-designated port
• Root port
• Routed Port

Explanation: The root port is the switch port on a switch with the lowest path cost to the root bridge.

4. The port on the segment (with two switches) that has the lowest path cost to the root bridge is the:

• Designated port
• Blocked port or non-designated port
• Root port
• Routed Port

Explanation: The designated port is the switch port on a segment with the lowest path cost to the root bridge.

5. Which of the following ports will forward Ethernet frames? (Choose two.)

• Designated port
• Blocked port or non-dedicated port
• Root port

Explanation: Designated ports and root ports will forward Ethernet frames.

6. The sum of individual port costs along the path from the switch to the root bridge is known as the:

• Least cost path
• Shortest path cost
• Best path cost
• Root path cost

Explanation: The root path cost is the sum of individual port costs along the path from the switch to the root bridge.

7. How often does a switch send a BPDU?

• Every 2 seconds
• Every 15 seconds
• Every 20 seconds
• Only when there is a change in the topology

Explanation: BPDUs are send every 2 seconds by default.