1. Which action best describes a MAC address spoofing attack?
- flooding the LAN with excessive traffic
- bombarding a switch with fake source MAC addresses
- altering the MAC address of an attacking host to match that of a legitimate host
- forcing the election of a rogue root bridge
Explanation: The attacker commonly runs a program or script that sends a stream of frames to the switch so the switch keeps the incorrect (spoofed) information in the MAC address table.
2. What is the result of a DHCP starvation attack?
- Clients receive IP address assignments from a rogue DHCP server.
- The IP addresses assigned to legitimate clients are hijacked.
- The attacker provides incorrect DNS and default gateway information to clients.
- Legitimate clients are unable to lease IP addresses.
Explanation: DCHP starvation attacks are launched by an attacker with the intent to create a DoS for DHCP clients. To accomplish this goal, the attacker uses a tool that sends many DHCPDISCOVER messages to lease the entire pool of available IP addresses, thus denying them to legitimate hosts.
3. In which type of attack is falsified information used to redirect users to malicious Internet sites?
- domain generation
- ARP cache poisoning
- DNS amplification and reflection
- DNS cache poisoning
Explanation: In a DNS cache poisoning attack, falsified information is used to redirect users from legitimate to malicious internet sites.
4. Which type of DNS attack involves the cybercriminal compromising a parent domain and creating multiple subdomains to be used during the attacks?
- cache poisoning
- amplification and reflection
Explanation: Two threats to DNS are DNS shadowing and DNS tunneling attacks. DNS shadowing attacks compromise a parent domain and then the cybercriminal creates subdomains to be used in attacks. DNS tunneling attacks build botnets to bypass traditional security solutions. Three threats to DNS open resolvers are cache poisoning, amplification and reflection, and resource utilization attacks.
5. Which language is used to query a relational database?
Explanation: Cybercriminals use SQL injections to breach a relational database, create malicious SQL queries, and obtain sensitive data.
6. Which term is used for bulk advertising emails flooded to as many end users as possible?
- brute force
Explanation: Spam is annoying and unwanted bulk email that is sent to as many end users as possible.
7. Which protocol would be the target of a cushioning attack?
Explanation: The HTTP 302 cushioning attack is used by cybercriminals to take advantage of the 302 Found HTTP response status code to redirect the browser of the user to a new location, usually a malicious site.
8. Which protocol is attacked when a cybercriminal provides an invalid gateway in order to create a man-in-the-middle attack?
- HTTP or HTTPS
Explanation: A cybercriminal could set up a rogue DHCP server that provides one or more of the following:
- Wrong default gateway that is used to create a man-in-the-middle attack and allow the attacker to intercept data
- Wrong DNS server that results in the user being sent to a malicious website
- Invalid default gateway IP address that results in a denial of service attack on the DHCP client
9. What is an objective of a DHCP spoofing attack?
- to intercept DHCP messages and alter the information before sending to DHCP clients
- to gain illegal access to a DHCP server and modify its configuration
- to provide false DNS server addresses to DHCP clients so that visits to a legitimate web server are directed to a fake server
- to attack a DHCP server and make it unable to provide valid IP addresses to DHCP clients
Explanation: In DHCP spoofing attacks, an attacker configures a fake DHCP server on the network to provide false DNS server addresses to clients. When a client tries to access a server using a server domain name (for example, a web server), the name to IP resolution request is sent to a DNS server that is under the control of the attacker, which provides the IP address of a fake server.
10. How do cybercriminals make use of a malicious iFrame?
- The attacker embeds malicious content in business appropriate files.
- The iFrame allows multiple DNS subdomains to be used.
- The attacker redirects traffic to an incorrect DNS server.
- The iFrame allows the browser to load a web page from another source.
Explanation: An inline frame or iFrame is an HTML element that allows the browser to load a different web page from another source.
11. What is a characteristic of a DNS amplification and reflection attack?
- Threat actors hide their phishing and malware delivery sites behind a quickly-changing network of compromised DNS hosts.
- Threat actors use malware to randomly generate domain names to act as rendezvous points.
- Threat actors use DNS open resolvers to increase the volume of attacks and to hide the true source of an attack.
- Threat actors use a DoS attack that consumes the resources of the DNS open resolvers.
Explanation: Threat actors use DNS open resolvers to increase the volume of attacks and to hide the true source of an attack by sending DNS messages to the open resolvers and using the IP address of a target host (victim).
12. Which two attacks target web servers through exploiting possible vulnerabilities of input functions used by an application? (Choose two.)
- SQL injection
- port scanning
- cross-site scripting
- port redirection
- trust exploitation
Explanation: When a web application uses input fields to collect data from clients, threat actors may exploit possible vulnerabilities for entering malicious commands. The malicious commands that are executed through the web application might affect the OS on the web server. SQL injection and cross-site scripting are two different types of command injection attacks.