CCNA 4 v6 Chapter 7: Check Your Understanding Questions Answers

CCNA 4 v6.0 (Connecting Networks v6) Chapter 7: Network Evolution: Check Your Understanding Questions Answers

1. What is an example of an M2M connection in the IoT?

  • A user sends an email over the Internet to a friend.
  • An automated alarm system in a campus sends fire alarm messages to all students and staff.
  • Redundant servers communicate with each other to determine which server should be active or standby.
  • Sensors in a warehouse communicate with each other and send data to a server block in the cloud.

Explanation: Within the IoT, the communication is Machine-to-Machine (M2M), enabling communication between machines without human intervention. For example, M2M occurs in cars with temperature and oil sensors communicating with an onboard computer.

2. What is the term describing the extension of the Internet structure to billions of connected devices?

  • BYOD
  • Digitization
  • IoT
  • M2M

Explanation: The Internet of Things (IoT) is a phrase that denotes the billions of electronic devices that are now able to connect to our data networks and the Internet.

3. Which statement describes the Cisco IoT System?

  • It is a router operating system combining IOS and Linux for fog computing.
  • It is a switch operating system to integrate many Layer 2 security features.
  • It is an advanced routing protocol for cloud computing.
  • It is an infrastructure to manage large-scale systems of very different endpoints and platforms.

Explanation: The Cisco IoT System uses a set of new and existing products and technologies to reduce the complexities of digitization for all industries. It provides an infrastructure designed to manage large-scale systems of very different endpoints and platforms, and the huge amount of data that they create.

4. Which three network models are described in the fog computing pillar of the Cisco IoT System? (Choose three.)

  • Client/server model
  • Cloud computing model
  • Enterprise WAN model
  • Fog computing model
  • P2P model
  • Peer-to-peer model

Explanation: The fog computing pillar describes the client/server model, the cloud computing model, and the fog computing model.

5. Which IoT pillar extends cloud connectivity closer to the network edge?

  • Management and automation pillar
  • Application enablement platform pillar
  • Network connectivity pillar
  • Fog computing pillar

Explanation: The fog computing pillar basically extends cloud connectivity closer to the edge. It enables end devices, such as smart meters, industrial sensors, robotic machines, and others, to connect to a local integrated computing, networking, and storage system.

6. Which cybersecurity solution is described in the security pillar of the Cisco IoT System to address the security of power plants and factory process lines?

  • IoT physical security
  • IoT network security
  • Cloud computing security
  • Operational Technology specific security

Explanation: The Cisco IoT security pillar cybersecurity solutions include Operational Technology (OT) security, IoT Network security, and IoT Physical security. OT is the hardware and software that keeps power plants running and manages factory process lines.

7. Which cloud computing opportunity would provide the use of network hardware such as routers and switches for a particular company?

  • Browser as a service (BaaS)
  • Infrastructure as a service (IaaS)
  • Software as a service (SaaS)
  • Wireless as a service (WaaS)

Explanation: With IaaS, the cloud provider is responsible for access to the network equipment, virtualized network services, and supporting network infrastructure.

8. What technology allows users to access data anywhere and at any time?

  • Cloud computing
  • Data analytics
  • Micromarketing
  • Virtualization

Explanation: Cloud computing enables access to organizational data anywhere and at any time; streamlines the organization’s IT operations by subscribing only to needed services; eliminates or reduces the need for onsite IT equipment, maintenance, and management; reduces cost for equipment, energy, physical plant requirements, and personnel training needs; and enables rapid responses to increasing data volume requirements.

9. What statement describes fog computing?

  • It creates a distributed computing infrastructure that provides services close to the network edge.
  • It requires cloud computing services to support non-IP-enabled sensors and controllers.
  • It supports larger networks than cloud computing does.
  • It utilizes a centralized computing infrastructure that stores and manipulates big data in one very secure data center.

Explanation: This IoT network model identifies a distributed computing infrastructure closer to the network edge. It enables edge devices to run applications locally and make immediate decisions. This reduces the data burden on networks because raw data does not need to be sent over network connections. It enhances resiliency by allowing IoT devices to operate when network connections are lost. It also enhances security by keeping sensitive data from being transported beyond the edge where it is needed.

10. Which cloud computing service would be best for a new organization that cannot afford physical servers and networking equipment and must purchase network services on-demand?

  • IaaS
  • ITaaS
  • PaaS
  • SaaS

Explanation: IaaS would be the best solution because the cloud provider is responsible for access to the network equipment, virtualized network services, and supporting network infrastructure.

11. Which cloud model provides services for a specific organization or entity?

  • A community cloud
  • A hybrid cloud
  • A private cloud
  • A public cloud

Explanation: Private cloud applications and services are intended for a specific organization or entity, such as the government.

12. How does virtualization help with disaster recovery within a data center?

  • Guarantee of power
  • Improvement of business practices
  • Supply of consistent air flow
  • Support of live migration

Explanation: A benefit of virtualization is increased server uptime with advanced redundant fault-tolerance features including live migration, storage migration, high availability, and distributed resource scheduling.

13. What is a difference between the functions of cloud computing and virtualization?

  • Cloud computing provides services on web-based access, whereas virtualization provides services on data access through virtualized Internet connections.
  • Cloud computing requires hypervisor technology, whereas virtualization is a fault-tolerance technology.
  • Cloud computing separates the application from the hardware, whereas virtualization separates the OS from the underlying hardware.
  • Cloud computing utilizes data center technology, whereas virtualization is not used in data centers.

Explanation: The terms cloud computing and virtualization are often used interchangeably; however, they mean different things. Virtualization is the foundation of cloud computing. Without it, cloud computing, as it is most widely implemented, would not be possible. Cloud computing separates the application from the hardware. Virtualization separates the OS from the hardware.

14. Which is a characteristic of a Type 2 hypervisor?

  • Best suited for enterprise environments
  • Does not require management console software
  • Has direct access to server hardware resources
  • Installs directly on hardware

Explanation: A Type 2 hypervisor, also called a hosted hypervisor, is software that creates and runs VM instances. A big advantage of Type 2 hypervisors is that management console software is not required.

15. Which is a characteristic of a Type 1 hypervisor?

  • Best suited for consumers and not for an enterprise environment
  • Does not require management console software
  • Installed directly on a server
  • Installed on an existing operating system

Explanation: With Type 1 hypervisors, the hypervisor is installed directly on the server or networking hardware. Then instances of an OS are installed on the hypervisor. Type 1 hypervisors have direct access to the hardware resources; therefore, they are more efficient than hosted architectures. Type 1 hypervisors improve scalability, performance, and robustness.

16. Which technology virtualizes the control plane and moves it to a centralized controller?

  • Cloud computing
  • Fog computing
  • IaaS
  • SDN

Explanation: Software-defined networking (SDN) is a network architecture that has been developed to virtualize the network. For example, SDN can virtualize the control plane. Also known as controller-based SDN, SDN moves the control plane from each network device to a central network intelligence and policy-making entity called the SDN controller.

17. Which two layers of the OSI model are associated with SDN network control plane functions that make forwarding decisions? (Choose two.)

  • Layer 1
  • Layer 2
  • Layer 3
  • Layer 4
  • Layer 5

Explanation: The control plane contains Layers 2 and 3 route forwarding mechanisms, such as routing protocol neighbor tables and topology tables, IPv4 and IPv6 routing tables, STP, and the ARP table. Information sent to the control plane is processed by the CPU.

18. Which type of hypervisor would most likely be used in a data center?

  • Nexus 9000 switch
  • Oracle VM VirtualBox
  • Type 1
  • Type 2

Explanation: Type 1 hypervisors are also called the “bare metal” approach because the hypervisor is installed directly on the hardware. Type 1 hypervisors are usually used on enterprise servers and data center networking devices.

19. Which type of hypervisor would most likely be used by a consumer?

  • Nexus 9000 switch
  • Oracle VM VirtualBox
  • Type 1
  • Type 2

Explanation: Type 2 hypervisors are very popular with consumers and for organizations experimenting with virtualization. Common Type 2 hypervisors include Virtual PC, VMware Workstation, Oracle VM VirtualBox, VMware Fusion, and Mac OS X Parallels.

20. What component is considered the brains of the ACI architecture and translates application policies?

  • The Application Network Profile endpoints
  • The Application Policy Infrastructure Controller
  • The hypervisor
  • The Nexus 9000 switch

Explanation: The APIC is considered to be the brains of the ACI architecture. The APIC is a centralized software controller that manages and operates a scalable ACI clustered fabric. It is designed for programmability and centralized management. It translates application policies into network programming.

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