CCNP ROUTE Chapter 7 Lab 7-3, Configuring IBGP and EBGP Sessions, Local Preference, and MED (Version 7)

Topology

CCNP ROUTE Chapter 7 Lab 7-3, Configuring IBGP and EBGP Sessions, Local Preference, and MED (Version 7) 1

Objectives

  • For IBGP peers to correctly exchange routing information, use the next-hop-self command with the Local-Preference and MED attributes.
  • Ensure that the flat-rate, unlimited-use T1 link is used for sending and receiving data to and from the AS 200 on ISP and that the metered T1 only be used in the event that the primary T1 link has failed.

Background

The International Travel Agency runs BGP on its SanJose1 and SanJose2 routers externally with the ISP router in AS 200. IBGP is run internally between SanJose1 and SanJose2. Your job is to configure both EBGP and IBGP for this internetwork to allow for redundancy. The metered T1 should only be used in the event that the primary T1 link has failed. Traffic sent across the metered T1 link offers the same bandwidth of the primary link but at a huge expense. Ensure that this link is not used unnecessarily.

Note: This lab uses Cisco 1941 routers with Cisco IOS Release 15.4 with IP Base. The switches are Cisco WS-C2960-24TT-L with Fast Ethernet interfaces, therefore the router will use routing metrics associated with a 100 Mb/s interface. Depending on the router or switch model and Cisco IOS Software version, the commands available and output produced might vary from what is shown in this lab.

Required Resources

  • 3 routers (Cisco IOS Release 15.2 or comparable)
  • Serial and Ethernet cables

Step 0: Suggested starting configurations.

a. Apply the following configuration to each router along with the appropriate hostname. The exec-timeout 0 0 command should only be used in a lab environment.

Router(config)# no ip domain-lookup
Router(config)# line con 0
Router(config-line)# logging synchronous
Router(config-line)# exec-timeout 0 0

Step 1: Configure interface addresses.

a. Using the addressing scheme in the diagram, create the loopback interfaces and apply IPv4 addresses to these and the serial interfaces on ISP (R1), SanJose1 (R2), and SanJose2 (R3).

Router R1 (hostname ISP)

ISP(config)# interface Loopback0
ISP(config-if)# ip address 192.168.100.1 255.255.255.0
ISP(config-if)# exit
ISP(config)# interface Serial0/0/0
ISP(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.5 255.255.255.252
ISP(config-if)# clock rate 128000
ISP(config-if)# no shutdown
ISP(config-if)# exit
ISP(config)# interface Serial0/0/1
ISP(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.252
ISP(config-if)# no shutdown
ISP(config-if)# end
ISP#

Router R2 (hostname SanJose1)

SanJose1(config)# interface Loopback0
SanJose1(config-if)# ip address 172.16.64.1 255.255.255.0
SanJose1(config-if)# exit
SanJose1(config)# interface Serial0/0/0
SanJose1(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.6 255.255.255.252
SanJose1(config-if)# no shutdown
SanJose1(config-if)# exit
SanJose1(config)# interface Serial0/0/1
SanJose1(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.1 255.255.255.0
SanJose1(config-if)# clock rate 128000
SanJose1(config-if)# no shutdown
SanJose1(config-if)# end
SanJose1#

Router R3 (hostname SanJose2)

SanJose2(config)# interface Loopback0
SanJose2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.32.1 255.255.255.0
SanJose2(config-if)# exit
SanJose2(config)# interface Serial0/0/0
SanJose2(config-if)# ip address 192.168.1.2 255.255.255.252
SanJose2(config-if)# clock rate 128000
SanJose2(config-if)# no shutdown
SanJose2(config-if)# exit
SanJose2(config)# interface Serial0/0/1
SanJose2(config-if)# ip address 172.16.1.2 255.255.255.0
SanJose2(config-if)# no shutdown
SanJose2(config-if)# end
SanJose2#

b. Use ping to test the connectivity between the directly connected routers. Both SanJose routers should be able to ping each other and their local ISP serial link IP address. The ISP router cannot reach the segment between SanJose1 and SanJose2.

Step 2: Configure EIGRP.

Configure EIGRP between the SanJose1 and SanJose2 routers. (Note: If using an IOS prior to 15.0, use the no auto-summary router configuration command to disable automatic summarization. This command is the default beginning with IOS 15.)

SanJose1(config)# router eigrp 1
SanJose1(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0

SanJose2(config)# router eigrp 1
SanJose2(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0

Step 3: Configure IBGP and verify BGP neighbors.

a. Configure IBGP between the SanJose1 and SanJose2 routers. On the SanJose1 router, enter the following configuration.

SanJose1(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose1(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.32.1 remote-as 64512
SanJose1(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.32.1 update-source lo0

If multiple pathways to the BGP neighbor exist, the router can use multiple IP interfaces to communicate with the neighbor. The source IP address therefore depends on the outgoing interface. The update-source lo0 command instructs the router to use the IP address of the interface Loopback0 as the source IP address for all BGP messages sent to that neighbor.

b. Complete the IBGP configuration on SanJose2 using the following commands.

SanJose2(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose2(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.64.1 remote-as 64512
SanJose2(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.64.1 update-source lo0

c. Verify that SanJose1 and SanJose2 become BGP neighbors by issuing the show ip bgp neighbors command on SanJose1. View the following partial output. If the BGP state is not established, troubleshoot the connection.

SanJose2# show ip bgp neighbors
BGP neighbor is 172.16.64.1, remote AS 64512, internal link
  BGP version 4, remote router ID 172.16.64.1
  BGP state = Established, up for 00:00:22
  Last read 00:00:22, last write 00:00:22, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
<output omitted>

The link between SanJose1 and SanJose2 should be identified as an internal link indicating an IBGP peering relationship, as shown in the output.

Step 4: Configure EBGP and verify BGP neighbors.

a. Configure ISP to run EBGP with SanJose1 and SanJose2. Enter the following commands on ISP.

ISP(config)# router bgp 200
ISP(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.6 remote-as 64512
ISP(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.2 remote-as 64512
ISP(config-router)# network 192.168.100.0

Because EBGP sessions are almost always established over point-to-point links, there is no reason to use the update-source keyword in this configuration. Only one path exists between the peers. If this path goes down, alternative paths are not available.

b. Configure a discard static route for the 172.16.0.0/16 network. Any packets that do not have a more specific match (longer match) for a 172.16.0.0 subnet will be dropped instead of sent to the ISP. Later in this lab we will configure a default route to the ISP.

SanJose1(config)# ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 null0

c. Configure SanJose1 as an EBGP peer to ISP.

SanJose1(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose1(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.5 remote-as 200
SanJose1(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0

d. Use the show ip bgp neighbors command to verify that SanJose1 and ISP have reached the established state. Troubleshoot if necessary.

SanJose1# show ip bgp neighbors
BGP neighbor is 172.16.32.1, remote AS 64512, internal link
  BGP version 4, remote router ID 172.16.32.1
  BGP state = Established, up for 00:12:43
<output omitted>

BGP neighbor is 192.168.1.5, remote AS 200, external link
  BGP version 4, remote router ID 192.168.100.1
  BGP state = Established, up for 00:06:49
  Last read 00:00:42, last write 00:00:45, hold time is 180, keepalive interval is 60 seconds
<output omitted>

Notice that the “external link” indicates that an EBGP peering session has been established. You should also see an informational message indicating the establishment of the BGP neighbor relationship.

*Sep 8 21:09:59.699: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.168.1.5 Up

e. Configure a discard static route for 172.16.0.0/16 on SanJose2 and as an EBGP peer to ISP.

SanJose2(config)# ip route 172.16.0.0 255.255.0.0 null0
SanJose2(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose2(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.1 remote-as 200
SanJose2(config-router)# network 172.16.0.0

Step 5: View BGP summary output.

In Step 4, the show ip bgp neighbors command was used to verify that SanJose1 and ISP had reached the established state. A useful alternative command is show ip bgp summary. The output should be similar to the following.

SanJose2# show ip bgp summary
BGP router identifier 172.16.32.1, local AS number 64512
BGP table version is 6, main routing table version 6
2 network entries using 288 bytes of memory
4 path entries using 320 bytes of memory
4/2 BGP path/bestpath attribute entries using 640 bytes of memory
1 BGP AS-PATH entries using 24 bytes of memory
0 BGP route-map cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
0 BGP filter-list cache entries using 0 bytes of memory
BGP using 1272 total bytes of memory
BGP activity 2/0 prefixes, 4/0 paths, scan interval 60 secs

Neighbor        V           AS MsgRcvd MsgSent   TblVer  InQ OutQ Up/Down  State/PfxRcd
172.16.64.1     4        64512      27      26        6    0    0 00:18:15        2
192.168.1.1     4          200      10       7        6    0    0 00:01:42        1
SanJose2#

Step 6: Verify which path the traffic takes.

f. Clear the IP BGP conversation with the clear ip bgp * command on ISP. Wait for the conversations to reestablish with each SanJose router.

ISP# clear ip bgp *
ISP#
*Nov 9 22:05:32.427: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.168.1.2 Down User reset
*Nov 9 22:05:32.427: %BGP_SESSION-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.168.1.2 IPv4 Unicast topology base removed from session User reset
*Nov 9 22:05:32.427: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.168.1.6 Down User reset
*Nov 9 22:05:32.427: %BGP_SESSION-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.168.1.6 IPv4 Unicast topology base removed from session User reset
*Nov 9 22:05:32.851: %BGP-5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.168.1.2 Up 
*Nov 9 22:05:32.851: %BGP-
ISP#5-ADJCHANGE: neighbor 192.168.1.6 Up 
ISP#

g. Test whether ISP can ping the loopback 0 address of 172.16.64.1 on SanJose1 and the serial link between SanJose1 and SanJose2, 172.16.1.1.

ISP# ping 172.16.64.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.64.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
ISP#
ISP# ping 172.16.1.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
.....
Success rate is 0 percent (0/5)
ISP#

h. Now ping from ISP to the loopback 0 address of 172.16.32.1 on SanJose2 and the serial link between SanJose1 and SanJose2, 172.16.1.2.

ISP# ping 172.16.32.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.32.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 12/14/16 ms
ISP# ping 172.16.1.2 
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 12/13/16 ms
ISP#

You should see successful pings to each IP address on SanJose2 router. Ping attempts to 172.16.64.1 and 172.16.1.1 should fail. Why does this happen?
___________________________________________________________________

i. Issue the show ip bgp command on ISP to verify BGP routes and metrics.

ISP# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 3, local router ID is 192.168.100.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 *   172.16.0.0       192.168.1.6              0             0 64512 i
 *>                   192.168.1.2              0             0 64512 i
 *>  192.168.100.0    0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
ISP# 
ISP# show ip bgp

Notice that ISP has two valid routes to the 172.16.0.0 network, as indicated by the . However, the link to SanJose2 has been selected as the best path, indicated by the inclusion of the “>”. Why did the ISP prefer the link to SanJose2 over SanJose1?
_________________________________________________________________

Would changing the bandwidth metric on each link help to correct this issue? Explain.
_________________________________________________________________

BGP operates differently than all other protocols. Unlike other routing protocols that use complex algorithms involving factors such as bandwidth, delay, reliability, and load to formulate a metric, BGP is policy-based. BGP determines the best path based on variables, such as AS path, weight, local preference, MED, and so on. If all things are equal, BGP prefers the route leading to the BGP speaker with the lowest BGP router ID. The SanJose2 router with BGP router ID 172.16.32.1 was preferred to the higher BGP router ID of the SanJose1 router (172.16.64.1).

j. At this point, the ISP router should be able to get to each network connected to SanJose1 and SanJose2 from the loopback address 192.168.100.1. Use the extended ping command and specify the source address of ISP Lo0 to test.

ISP# ping 172.16.1.1 source 192.168.100.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 192.168.100.1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/21/24 ms

ISP# ping 172.16.32.1 source 192.168.100.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.32.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 192.168.100.1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 12/15/16 ms

ISP# ping 172.16.1.2 source 192.168.100.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.1.2, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 192.168.100.1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 12/15/16 ms
ISP#

ISP# ping 172.16.64.1 source 192.168.100.1

Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.64.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 192.168.100.1
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/21/24 ms
You can also use the extended ping dialogue to specify the source address, as shown in this example.
ISP# ping
Protocol [ip]: 
Target IP address: 172.16.64.1
Repeat count [5]: 
Datagram size [100]: 
Timeout in seconds [2]: 
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: 192.168.100.1
Type of service [0]: 
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]: 
Validate reply data? [no]: 
Data pattern [0xABCD]: 
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]: 
Sweep range of sizes [n]: 
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 172.16.64.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 192.168.100.1 
!!!!!
Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/20/24 ms
ISP#

Complete reachability has been demonstrated between the ISP router and both SanJose1 and SanJose2.

Step 7: Configure the BGP next-hop-self feature.

SanJose1 is unaware of the link between ISP and SanJose2, and SanJose2 is unaware of the link between ISP and SanJose1. Before ISP can successfully ping all the internal serial interfaces of AS 64512, these serial links should be advertised via BGP on the ISP router. This can also be resolved via EIGRP on each SanJose router. One method is for ISP to advertise these links.

a. Issue the following commands on the ISP router.

ISP(config)# router bgp 200
ISP(config-router)# network 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.252
ISP(config-router)# network 192.168.1.4 mask 255.255.255.252

b. Issue the show ip bgp command to verify that the ISP is correctly injecting its own WAN links into BGP.

ISP# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 5, local router ID is 192.168.100.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 *   172.16.0.0       192.168.1.6              0             0 64512 i
 *>                   192.168.1.2              0             0 64512 i
 *>  192.168.1.0/30   0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 *>  192.168.1.4/30   0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 *>  192.168.100.0    0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
ISP#

c. Verify on SanJose1 and SanJose2 that the opposite WAN link is included in the routing table. The output from SanJose2 is as follows.

SanJose2# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.32.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
D        172.16.64.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 00:52:03, Serial0/0/1
      192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 3 subnets, 2 masks
C        192.168.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
L        192.168.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
B        192.168.1.4/30 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:01:03
B     192.168.100.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:25:20
SanJose2#

The next issue to consider is BGP policy routing between autonomous systems. The next-hop attribute of a route in a different AS is set to the IP address of the border router in the next AS toward the destination, and this attribute is not modified by default when advertising this route through IBGP. Therefore, for all IBGP peers, it is either necessary to know the route to that border router (in a different neighboring AS), or our own border router needs to advertise the foreign routes using the next-hop-self feature, overriding the next-hop address with its own IP address. The SanJose2 router is passing a policy to SanJose1 and vice versa. The policy for routing from AS 64512 to AS 200 is to forward packets to the 192.168.1.1 interface. SanJose1 has a similar yet opposite policy: it forwards requests to the 192.168.1.5 interface. If either WAN link fails, it is critical that the opposite router become a valid gateway. This is achieved if the next-hop-self command is configured on SanJose1 and SanJose2.

d. To better understand the next-hop-self command we will remove ISP advertising its two WAN links and shutdown the WAN link between ISP and SanJose2. The only possible path from SanJose2 to ISP’s 192.168.100.0/24 is through SanJose1.

ISP(config)# router bgp 200
ISP(config-router)# no network 192.168.1.0 mask 255.255.255.252
ISP(config-router)# no network 192.168.1.4 mask 255.255.255.252
ISP(config-router)# exit
ISP(config)# interface serial 0/0/1
ISP(config-if)# shutdown
ISP(config-if)#

e. Display SanJose2’s BGP table using the show ip bgp command and the IPv4 routing table with show ip route.

SanJose2# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 1, local router ID is 172.16.32.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 * i 172.16.0.0       172.16.64.1              0    100      0 i
 * i 192.168.100.0    192.168.1.5              0    100      0 200 i
SanJose2#


SanJose2# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.32.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
D        172.16.64.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 02:41:46, Serial0/0/1
SanJose2#

Notice that SanJose2 has 192.168.100.0 in it’s BGP table but not in its routing table. The BGP table shows the next hop to 192.168.100.0 as 192.168.1.5. Because SanJose2 does not have a route to this next hop address of 192.168.1.5 in its routing table, it will not install the 192.168.100.0 network into the routing table. It won’t install a route if it doesn’t know how to get to the next hop.

EBGP next hop addresses are carried into IBGP unchanged. As we saw previously, we could advertise the WAN link using BGP, but this is not always desirable. It means advertising additional routes when we are usually trying to minimize the size of the routing table. Another option is to have the routers within the IGP domain advertise themselves as the next hop router using the next-hop-self command.

f. Issue the next-hop-self command on SanJose1 and SanJose2 to advertise themselves as the next hop to their IBGP peer.

SanJose1(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose1(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.32.1 next-hop-self

SanJose2(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose2(config-router)# neighbor 172.16.64.1 next-hop-self

g. Reset BGP operation on either router with the clear ip bgp * command.

SanJose1# clear ip bgp * 
SanJose1#

SanJose2# clear ip bgp * 
SanJose2#

h. After the routers have returned to established BGP speakers, issue the show ip bgp command on SanJose2 and notice that the next hop is now SanJose1 instead of ISP.

SanJose2# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 5, local router ID is 172.16.32.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 *>  172.16.0.0       0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 * i                  172.16.64.1              0    100      0 i
 *>i 192.168.100.0    172.16.64.1              0    100      0 200 i
SanJose2#

i. The show ip route command on SanJose2 now displays the 192.168.100.0/24 network because SanJose1 is the next hop, 172.16.64.1, which is reachable from SanJose2.

SanJose2# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.32.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
D        172.16.64.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 04:27:19, Serial0/0/1
B     192.168.100.0/24 [200/0] via 172.16.64.1, 00:00:46
SanJose2#

j. Before configuring the next BGP attribute, restore the WAN link between ISP and SanJose3. This will change the BGP table and routing table on both routers. For example, SanJose2’s routing table shows 192.168.100.0/24 will now have a better path through ISP.

ISP(config)# interface serial 0/0/1
ISP(config-if)# no shutdown
ISP(config-if)#

SanJose2# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.32.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
D        172.16.64.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 04:37:34, Serial0/0/1
      192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        192.168.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
L        192.168.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
B     192.168.100.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:01:35
SanJose2#

Step 8: Set BGP local preference.

At this point, everything looks good, with the exception of default routes, the outbound flow of data, and inbound packet flow.

a. Because the local preference value is shared between IBGP neighbors, configure a simple route map that references the local preference value on SanJose1 and SanJose2. This policy adjusts outbound traffic to prefer the link off the SanJose1 router instead of the metered T1 off SanJose2.

SanJose1(config)# route-map PRIMARY_T1_IN permit 10
SanJose1(config-route-map)# set local-preference 150
SanJose1(config-route-map)# exit 
SanJose1(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose1(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.5 route-map PRIMARY_T1_IN in

SanJose2(config)# route-map SECONDARY_T1_IN permit 10
SanJose2(config-route-map)# set local-preference 125
SanJose1(config-route-map)# exit 
SanJose2(config)# router bgp 64512
SanJose2(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.1 route-map SECONDARY_T1_IN in

b. Use the clear ip bgp * soft command after configuring this new policy. When the conversations have been reestablished, issue the show ip bgp command on SanJose1 and SanJose2.

SanJose1# clear ip bgp * soft
SanJose2# clear ip bgp * soft

SanJose1# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 3, local router ID is 172.16.64.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 * i 172.16.0.0       172.16.32.1              0    100      0 i
 *>                   0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 *>  192.168.100.0    192.168.1.5              0    150      0 200 i
SanJose1#

SanJose2# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 7, local router ID is 172.16.32.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 * i 172.16.0.0       172.16.64.1              0    100      0 i
 *>                   0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 *>i 192.168.100.0    172.16.64.1              0    150      0 200 i
 *                    192.168.1.1              0    125      0 200 i
SanJose2#

This now indicates that routing to the loopback segment for ISP 192.168.100.0 /24 can be reached only through the link common to SanJose1 and ISP. SanJose2’s next hop to 192.168.100.0/24 is SanJose1 because both routers have been configured using the next-hop-self command.

Step 9: Set BGP MED.

a. In the previous step we saw that SanJose1 and SanJose2 will route traffic for 192.168.100.0/24 using the link between SanJose1 and ISP. Examine what the return path ISP takes to reach AS 64512. Notice that the return path is different from the original path. This is known as asymmetric routing and is not necessarily an unwanted trait.

ISP# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 22, local router ID is 192.168.100.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 *   172.16.0.0       192.168.1.6              0             0 64512 i
 *>                   192.168.1.2              0             0 64512 i
 *>  192.168.100.0    0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
ISP# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is not set

B     172.16.0.0/16 [20/0] via 192.168.1.2, 00:12:45
      192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 4 subnets, 2 masks
C        192.168.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        192.168.1.1/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
C        192.168.1.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
L        192.168.1.5/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
      192.168.100.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        192.168.100.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        192.168.100.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
ISP#

How will traffic from network 192.168.100.0 /24 on ISP return to SanJose1 or SanJose2? Will it be routed through SanJose1 or SanJose2?
_________________________________________________________________

To verify this, the simplest solution is to issue the show ip bgp command on the ISP router as was done above. What if access was not given to the ISP router? Traffic returning from the Internet should not be passed across the metered T1. Is there a simple way to verify before receiving the monthly bill? How can it be checked instantly?
__________________________________________________________________

a. Use an extended ping command to verify this situation. Specify the record option and compare your output to the following. Notice the return path using the exit interface 192.168.1.1 to SanJose2.

SanJose2# ping
Protocol [ip]: 
Target IP address: 192.168.100.1
Repeat count [5]: 
Datagram size [100]: 
Timeout in seconds [2]: 
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: 172.16.32.1
Type of service [0]: 
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]: 
Validate reply data? [no]: 
Data pattern [0xABCD]: 
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]: record
Number of hops [ 9 ]: 
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[RV]: 
Sweep range of sizes [n]: 
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.100.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 172.16.32.1 
Packet has IP options:  Total option bytes= 39, padded length=40
 Record route: <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)

Reply to request 0 (20 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 1 (20 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 2 (20 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 3 (24 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 4 (20 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 20/20/24 ms
SanJose2#

If you are unfamiliar with the record option, the important thing to note is that each IP address in brackets is an outgoing interface. The output can be interpreted as follows:

1. A ping that is sourced from 172.16.32.1 exits SanJose2 through s0/0/1, 172.16.1.2. It then arrives at the s0/0/1 interface for SanJose1.
2. SanJose1 S0/0/0, 192.168.1.6, routes the packet out to arrive at the S0/0/0 interface of ISP.
3. The target of 192.168.100.1 is reached: 192.168.100.1.
4. The packet is next forwarded out the S0/0/1, 192.168.1.1 interface for ISP and arrives at the S0/0/0 interface for SanJose2.
5. SanJose2 then forwards the packet out the last interface, loopback 0, 172.16.32.1.

Although the unlimited use of the T1 from SanJose1 is preferred here, ISP currently takes the link from SanJose2 for all return traffic.

b. Create a new policy to force the ISP router to return all traffic via SanJose1. Create a second route map utilizing the MED (metric) that is shared between EBGP neighbors.

SanJose1(config)#route-map PRIMARY_T1_MED_OUT permit 10
SanJose1(config-route-map)#set Metric 50
SanJose1(config-route-map)#exit
SanJose1(config)#router bgp 64512
SanJose1(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.5 route-map PRIMARY_T1_MED_OUT out

SanJose2(config)#route-map SECONDARY_T1_MED_OUT permit 10
SanJose2(config-route-map)#set Metric 75
SanJose2(config-route-map)#exit
SanJose2(config)#router bgp 64512
SanJose2(config-router)#neighbor 192.168.1.1 route-map SECONDARY_T1_MED_OUT out

c. Use the clear ip bgp * soft command after issuing this new policy. Issuing the show ip bgp command as follows on SanJose1 or SanJose2 does not indicate anything about this newly defined policy.

SanJose1# clear ip bgp * soft
SanJose2# clear ip bgp * soft

SanJose1# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 4, local router ID is 172.16.64.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 * i 172.16.0.0       172.16.32.1              0    100      0 i
 *>                   0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 *>  192.168.100.0    192.168.1.5              0    150      0 200 i
SanJose1#

SanJose2# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 8, local router ID is 172.16.32.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 * i 172.16.0.0       172.16.64.1              0    100      0 i
 *>                   0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 *>i 192.168.100.0    172.16.64.1              0    150      0 200 i
 *                    192.168.1.1              0    125      0 200 i
SanJose2#

d. Reissue an extended ping command with the record command. Notice the change in return path using the exit interface 192.168.1.5 to SanJose1.

SanJose2# ping
Protocol [ip]: 
Target IP address: 192.168.100.1
Repeat count [5]: 
Datagram size [100]: 
Timeout in seconds [2]: 
Extended commands [n]: y
Source address or interface: 172.16.32.1
Type of service [0]: 
Set DF bit in IP header? [no]: 
Validate reply data? [no]: 
Data pattern [0xABCD]: 
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[none]: record
Number of hops [ 9 ]: 
Loose, Strict, Record, Timestamp, Verbose[RV]: 
Sweep range of sizes [n]: 
Type escape sequence to abort.
Sending 5, 100-byte ICMP Echos to 192.168.100.1, timeout is 2 seconds:
Packet sent with a source address of 172.16.32.1 
Packet has IP options:  Total option bytes= 39, padded length=40
 Record route: <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)

Reply to request 0 (28 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.5)
   (172.16.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 1 (28 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.5)
   (172.16.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 2 (28 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.5)
   (172.16.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 3 (28 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.5)
   (172.16.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Reply to request 4 (28 ms).  Received packet has options
 Total option bytes= 40, padded length=40
 Record route:
   (172.16.1.2)
   (192.168.1.6)
   (192.168.100.1)
   (192.168.1.5)
   (172.16.1.1)
   (172.16.32.1) <*>
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
   (0.0.0.0)
 End of list

Success rate is 100 percent (5/5), round-trip min/avg/max = 28/28/28 ms
SanJose2#

Does the output look correct? Does the 192.168.1.5 above mean that the ISP now prefers SanJose1 for return traffic?
______________________________________________________________

The newly configured policy MED shows that the lower MED value is considered best. The ISP now prefers the route with the lower MED value of 50 to AS 64512. This is just opposite from the local-preference command configured earlier.

ISP# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 24, local router ID is 192.168.100.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 *>  172.16.0.0       192.168.1.6             50             0 64512 i
 *                    192.168.1.2             75             0 64512 i
 *>  192.168.100.0    0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
ISP#

Step 10: Establish a default route.

The final step is to establish a default route that uses a policy statement that adjusts to changes in the network.

a. Configure ISP to inject a default route to both SanJose1 and SanJose2 using BGP using the default-originate command. This command does not require the presence of 0.0.0.0 in the ISP router. Configure the 10.0.0.0/8 network which will not be advertised using BGP. This network will be used to test the default route on SanJose1 and SanJose2.

ISP(config)# router bgp 200
ISP(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.6 default-originate
ISP(config-router)# neighbor 192.168.1.2 default-originate
ISP(config-router)# exit 
ISP(config)# interface loopback 10 
ISP(config-if)# ip address 10.0.0.1 255.255.255.0
ISP(config-if)#

b. Verify that both routers have received the default route by examining the routing tables on SanJose1 and SanJose2. Notice that both routers prefer the route between SanJose1 and ISP.

SanJose1# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is 192.168.1.5 to network 0.0.0.0

B*    0.0.0.0/0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.5, 00:00:36
      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.1/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
D        172.16.32.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.2, 05:47:24, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.64.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.64.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
      192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        192.168.1.4/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
L        192.168.1.6/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
SanJose1#

SanJose2# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.64.1 to network 0.0.0.0

B*    0.0.0.0/0 [200/0] via 172.16.64.1, 00:00:45
      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.32.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
D        172.16.64.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 05:47:33, Serial0/0/1
      192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        192.168.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
L        192.168.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
SanJose2#

c. The preferred default route is by way of SanJose1 because of the higher local preference attribute configured on SanJose1 earlier.

SanJose2# show ip bgp
BGP table version is 38, local router ID is 172.16.32.1
Status codes: s suppressed, d damped, h history, * valid, > best, i - internal, 
              r RIB-failure, S Stale, m multipath, b backup-path, f RT-Filter, 
              x best-external, a additional-path, c RIB-compressed, 
Origin codes: i - IGP, e - EGP, ? - incomplete
RPKI validation codes: V valid, I invalid, N Not found

     Network          Next Hop            Metric LocPrf Weight Path
 *>i 0.0.0.0          172.16.64.1              0    150      0 200 i
 *                    192.168.1.1                   125      0 200 i
 * i 172.16.0.0       172.16.64.1              0    100      0 i
 *>                   0.0.0.0                  0         32768 i
 *>i 192.168.100.0    172.16.64.1              0    150      0 200 i
 *                    192.168.1.1              0    125      0 200 i
SanJose2#

d. Using the traceroute command verify that packets to 10.0.0.1 is using the default route through SanJose1.

SanJose2# traceroute 10.0.0.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.0.0.1
VRF info: (vrf in name/id, vrf out name/id)
  1 172.16.1.1 8 msec 4 msec 8 msec
  2 192.168.1.5 [AS 200] 12 msec * 12 msec
SanJose2#

e. Next, test how BGP adapts to using a different default route when the path between SanJose1 and ISP goes down.

ISP(config)# interface serial 0/0/0
ISP(config-if)# shutdown
ISP(config-if)#

f. Verify that both routers are modified their routing tables with the default route using the path between SanJose2 and ISP.

SanJose1# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is 172.16.32.1 to network 0.0.0.0

B*    0.0.0.0/0 [200/0] via 172.16.32.1, 00:00:06
      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.1/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
D        172.16.32.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.2, 05:49:25, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.64.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.64.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
B     192.168.100.0/24 [200/0] via 172.16.32.1, 00:00:06
SanJose1#

SanJose2# show ip route
Codes: L - local, C - connected, S - static, R - RIP, M - mobile, B - BGP
       D - EIGRP, EX - EIGRP external, O - OSPF, IA - OSPF inter area 
       N1 - OSPF NSSA external type 1, N2 - OSPF NSSA external type 2
       E1 - OSPF external type 1, E2 - OSPF external type 2
       i - IS-IS, su - IS-IS summary, L1 - IS-IS level-1, L2 - IS-IS level-2
       ia - IS-IS inter area, * - candidate default, U - per-user static route
       o - ODR, P - periodic downloaded static route, H - NHRP, l - LISP
       a - application route
       + - replicated route, % - next hop override

Gateway of last resort is 192.168.1.1 to network 0.0.0.0

B*    0.0.0.0/0 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:30
      172.16.0.0/16 is variably subnetted, 6 subnets, 3 masks
S        172.16.0.0/16 is directly connected, Null0
C        172.16.1.0/24 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
L        172.16.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/1
C        172.16.32.0/24 is directly connected, Loopback0
L        172.16.32.1/32 is directly connected, Loopback0
D        172.16.64.0/24 [90/2297856] via 172.16.1.1, 05:49:49, Serial0/0/1
      192.168.1.0/24 is variably subnetted, 2 subnets, 2 masks
C        192.168.1.0/30 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
L        192.168.1.2/32 is directly connected, Serial0/0/0
B     192.168.100.0/24 [20/0] via 192.168.1.1, 00:00:30
SanJose2#

g. Verify the new path using the traceroute command to 10.0.0.1 from SanJose1. Notice the default route is now through SanJose2.

SanJose1# trace 10.0.0.1
Type escape sequence to abort.
Tracing the route to 10.0.0.1
VRF info: (vrf in name/id, vrf out name/id)
  1 172.16.1.2 8 msec 8 msec 8 msec
  2 192.168.1.1 [AS 200] 12 msec *  12 msec
SanJose1#

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