CCNA 2 v6.0 Study Material – Chapter 10: Device Discovery, Management, and Maintenance

Chapter 10 – Sections & Objectives

  • 10.1 Device Discovery
    • Use discovery protocols to map a network topology.
  • 10.2 Device Management
    • Configure NTP and Syslog in a small to medium-sized business network
  • 10.3 Device Maintenance
    • Maintain router and switch configuration and IOS files.

10.1 Device Discovery

Device Discovery with CDP

•  CDP Overview

°  Cisco Discovery Protocol

°  Neighbor discovery of physically connected Cisco devices

•  Configure and Verify CDP

show cdp neighbors
show cdp interface
cdp run
cdp enable

•  Discover Devices Using CDP

°  Device identifiers – The host name of the neighbor device

°  Port identifier – The name of the local and remote port

°  Capabilities list – Whether the device is a router or a switch

°  Platform – The hardware platform of the device


Device Discovery with LLDP

•  LLDP Overview

°  A vendor neutral layer 2 neighbor discovery protocol, similar to CDP

•  Configure and Verify LLDP

show lldp
lldp run
lldp transmit
lldp receive


•  Discover Devices Using LLDP

show lldp neighbors



10.2 Device Management

Implement NTP

•  Setting the System Clock

°  Manually configure the date and time

°  Configure Network Time Protocol (NTP)

•  NTP Operation

°  Hierarchical system of time sources

°  Stratum 0 – Authoritative time source

°  Stratum number indicates how far the server is from the time source

•  Configure and Verify NTP

ntp server ip-address
show ntp associations
show ntp status
show clock



Syslog Operation

  • Introduction to Syslog
    • Allows devices to send their messages to syslog server
    • Supported by most networking devices
    • Primary functions:
      • log information
      • select the type
      • specify the destinations
  • Syslog Message Format
    • Severity level from 0 – 7
    • Facility – service identifiers
  • Service Timestamp

Enhances real-time debugging and management

service timestamps log datetime


Syslog Configuration

•  Syslog Server

°  Parses the output and places the messages into pre-defined columns

°  Timestamps are displayed if configured on networking devices that generated the log messages

°  Allows the network administrators to navigate the large amount of data compiled on a syslog server.

•  Default Logging

°  Send log messages of all severity level to the console

show logging


•  Router and Switch Commands for Syslog Clients

logging ip-address
logging trap level
logging source-interface source-interface interface-number


•  Verifying Syslog

show logging

Use the pipe (|) to limit the amount of displayed log messages


10.3 Device Maintenance

Router and Switch File Maintenance

  • Router and Switch File Systems
    • show file systems – lists all available file system
    • dir – lists the content of the file system
    • pwd verify the present working directory
    • cd – changes the current directory
  • Backing up and Restoring using Text Files

•  Backing up and Restoring using TFTP

copy running-config tftp
copy startup-config tftp

•  Using USB Ports for Backing Up and Restoring

show file systems
dir usbflash0:
copy run usbflash0:/

•  Password Recovery

°  Enter ROMMON mode

°  Change configuration register to 0x2142

°  Make changes to the original startup config

°  Save the new configuration


IOS System Files

•  IOS 15 System Image Packaging

°  universalk9 images

°  universalk9_npe images

°  Technology packages: IP Base, Data, UC, SEC

°  Data, UC, and SEC technology packages are activated through licensing

•  IOS Image Filenames

°  Feature sets and version

show flash



IOS Image Management

•  TFTP Servers as a Backup Location

°  Backup location for IOS images and configuration files

•  Steps to Backup IOS Image to TFTP Server

°  Verify access to TFTP server

°  Verify sufficient disk space

°  Copy the image to the TFTP server

copy source-url tftp:

•  Steps to Copy an IOS Image to a Device

°  Download IOS image from and transfer it to TFTP server

°  Verify access to TFTP server from device

°  Verify sufficient disk space on device

°  Copy the image from the TFTP server

copy tftp: destination-url

•  The boot system Command

°  Command to load the new image during bootup

boot system file-url



Software Licensing

•  Licensing Process

°  Purchase the software package or feature to install

°  Obtain a license

Cisco License Manger

Cisco License Portal

Requires PAK number and UDI

show license udi

°  Install the license

license install stored-location-url


License Verification and Management

•  License verification

show version
show license

•  Activate an evaluation right-to-use license

license accept end user agreement 
license boot module module-name technology-package package-name 

•  Back up the license

license save file-sys://lic-location

•  Uninstall the license

°  Disable the license

license boot module module-name technology-package package-name disable

°  Clear the license

license clear feature-name
no license boot module module-name technology-package package-name disable



10.4 Chapter Summary

  • CDP is a Cisco proprietary protocol for network discovery on the data link layer. It can share information, such as device names and IOS versions, with other physically connected Cisco devices.
  • LLDP is vendor-neutral protocol used on the data link layer for network discovery. The network devices advertise information, such as their identities and capabilities, to their neighbors.
  • NTP synchronizes the time of day among a set of distributed time servers and clients. This allows networking devices to agree on the time a specific event occurred, such as the loss of connectivity between a router and a switch.
  • Syslog messages can be trapped and sent to a syslog server where the network administrator can investigate when the link failed.
  • Device maintenance includes the tasks of backing up, restoring, and upgrading IOS images and configuration files from an TFTP server or using USB storage devices.
  • Upgrading an IOS image also includes tasks related to software licensing.
  • Understanding IOS image name conventions can be useful in the determination of included IOS feature sets.


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