CCNA 1 v6.0 Study Material – Chapter 7: IP Addressing

CCNA 1 v6.0 Study Material – Chapter 7: IP Addressing
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Chapter 7 – Sections & Objectives

  • 7.1 IPv4 Network Addresses
    • Convert between binary and decimal numbering systems.
    • Describe the structure of an IPv4 address including the network portion, the host portion, and the subnet mask.
    • Compare the characteristics and uses of the unicast, broadcast, and multicast IPv4 addresses.
    • Explain public, private, and reserved IPv4 addresses.
  • 7.2 IPv6 Network Addresses
    • Explain the need for IPv6 addressing.
    • Describe the representation of an IPv6 address.
    • Describe types of IPv6 network addresses.
    • Configure global unicast addresses.
    • Describe multicast addresses.
  • 7.3 Connectivity Verification
    • Explain how ICMP is used to test network connectivity.
    • Use ping and traceroute utilities to test network connectivity.

7.1 IPv4 Network Addresses

Binary and Decimal Conversion

  • IPv4 Addresses
      • consists of a string of 32 bits, divided into four sections called octets.
      • Each octet contains 8 bits (or 1 byte) separated with a dot.

  • Conversion between Binary to Decimal
      • Use the chart to help with conversion

IPv4 Address Structure

    • Network and Host Portions
    • The Subnet Mask
    • Logical AND
      • What is the network address for graphics?
    • Prefix Length
      • What is the prefix length for the graphics?
    • Network, Host, and Broadcast Addresses
      • Network Address?
      • Range of Valid Hosts?
      • Broadcast Address?

IPv4 Unicast, Broadcast, and Multicast

  • IPv4 Addressing Assignment to a Host
    • Static – Type in manually
    • Dynamic – Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
  • IPv4 Communication
    • Unicast – send packets from one host to an individual host
    • Broadcast – send packets from one host to all the hosts in the network
    • Multicast – send a packet from one host to a selected group of hosts in the same or different network
    • Which types of communication are the graphics on the right?

Types of IPv4 Addresses

    • Public and Private IPv4 Addresses
      • Private addresses are not routed over the Internet
      • Private Addresses:
        • 10.0.0.0/8 or 10.0.0.0 to10.255.255.255
        • 172.16.0.0 /12 or 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255
        • 192.168.0.0 /16 or 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255

    • Special User IPv4 Addresses
      • Loopback addresses
        – 127.0.0.0 /8 or 127.0.0.1 to 127.255.255.254
      • Link-Local addresses or Automatic Private IP Addressing (APIPA) addresses
        – 169.254.0.0 /16 or 169.254.0.1 to 169.254.255.254
      • TEST-NET addresses
        – 192.0.2.0/24 or 192.0.2.0 to 192.0.2.255
    • Classless Addressing
      • CIDR
      • Allocated IPv4 addresses based on prefix length
    • Assignment of IP Addresses

7.2 IPv6 Network Addresses

IPv4 Issues

  • The Need for IPv6
    • Depletion of IPv4 address space
    • Internet of Everything
  • IPv4 and IPv6 Coexistence
    • Dual Stack – IPv4 and IPv6 on the same network
    • Tunneling – IPv6 packets inside IPv4 packets
    • Translation – IPv6 packet is translated to an IPv4 packet, and vice versa.

IPv6 Addressing

  • IPv6 Address Representation
    x:x:x:x:x:x:x:x, where x represents 4 hexadecimal values
  • Apply the rules to simply these IPv6 Addresses
    • Rule 1: Omit Leading 0s
    • Rule 2: Omit All 0 Segments
      • 2001:0DB8:0000:1133:0000:0000:0000:0200
      • 2001:0DB8:CAFE:0000:1111:0000:0000:0200
      • 2001:0DB8:000A:0000:0000:0000:0000:1000
      • 2001:0DB8:ACAD:1234:0000:0000:0000:0000
      • 2001:0DB8:0000:1111:0020:0000:ACAD:0000
      • FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001
      • FE80:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0003
      • 0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000

Types of IPv6 Addresses

    • IPv6 Address Types
      • Unicast
      • Multicast
      • Anycast
    • IPv6 Prefix Length
      • Indicates the network portion
      • Format: IPv6 address /prefix length
      • Prefix length range from 0 to 128
      • Typical length is /64

  • Common Types of IPv6 Addresses
      • Unicast Addresses
        – Unique, Internet routable addresses
        – Configured statically or assigned dynamically
      • Link-Local Unicast Addresses
        – Communicate with other IPv6 enabled devices on the same link
        – Device creates its own link local address without DHCP server
      • Unique Local Addresses
        – Unique local unicast
        – Used for local addresses within a site or between a limited number of sites

IPv6 Unicast Addresses

  • Structure of an IPv6 Global Unicast Address
    • Global Routing Prefix
    • Subnet ID
    • Interface ID
  • Static Configuration of a Global Unicast Address
    • ipv6 address ipv6-address/prefix-length
  • Dynamic Configuration
    • SLAAC
    • DHCPv6
  • Link-Local Addresses
    • Dynamic or Static
  • Verifying IPv6 Address Configuration
    • show ipv6 interface brief

IPv6 Multicast Addresses

  • Assigned IPv6 Multicast Addresses
    • IPv6 multicast addresses have the prefix FF00::/8
      – FF02::1 All-nodes multicast group
      – FF02::2 All-routers multicast group

  • Solicited-Node IPv6 Multicast Addresses

7.3 Connectivity Verification

ICMP

  • ICMPv4 and ICMPv6
    • Host Confirmation
    • Destination or Service Unreachable
    • Time Exceeded
    • Router Redirection
  • ICMPv6 Router Solicitation and Router Advertisement Messages
    • Messaging between an IPv6 router and an IPv6 device:
      • Router Solicitation (RS) message
      • Router Advertisement (RA) message
    • Messaging between IPv6 devices:
      • Neighbor Solicitation (NS) message
      • Neighbor Advertisement (NA) message
    • Duplicate Address Detection (DAD)

Testing and Verification

  • Ping
    • Testing the Local Stack
      – 127.0.0.1 (IPv4) or ::1 (IPv6)
    • Testing Connectivity to the Local LAN
    • Testing Connectivity to Remote
  • Traceroute
    • Testing the Path
      – Round Trip Time (RTT)
      – IPv4 TTL and IPv6 Hop Limit

7.4 Chapter Summary

Summary

  • Explain the use of IPv4 addresses to provide connectivity in a small to medium-sized business network.
  • Configure IPv6 addresses to provide connectivity in small to medium-sized business networks.
  • Use common testing utilities to verify network connectivity.

Section 7.1 New Terms and Commands

    • ANDing
    • Binary Numbering System
    • Broadcast
    • Broadcast Address
    • Broadcast Domain
    • Class A
    • Class B
    • Class C
    • Class D
    • Class E
    • Classless Inter-domain Routing (CIDR)
    • DHCP Server
    • DHCP Client Dynamic Assignment
    • Directed Broadcast

      • Dotted Decimal Format
      • Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
      • Host Address
      • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA)
      • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
      • IPv4 Loopback Address
      • Limited Broadcast
      • Link-local Addresses
      • Multicast Transmission
      • Multicast
      • Multicast Addresses
      • Network Address

      • Octet
      • Positional Notation
      • Prefix Length
      • Private Address
      • Public Address
      • radix
      • Regional Internet Registries (RIRs)
      • RFC 1918
      • Slash Notation
      • Static IP Addressing
      • Subnet Mask
      • TEST-NET Addresses
      • Unicast

Section 7.2 New Terms and Commands

      • Address Resolution
      • Assigned multicast
      • Destination or Service Unreachable
      • Dual-stack
      • Duplicate Address Detection
      • EUI-64 Process
      • FF02::1 All-nodes multicast group
      • FF02::2 All-routers multicast group
      • Global Unicast Address
      • Hextet
      • Host confirmation

      • ICMPv6
      • IPv4 Time-to-Live (TTL)
      • IPv6
      • IPv6 Anycast
      • IPv6 Hop Limit
      • IPv6 link-local address
      • IPv6 Loopback Address
      • IPv6 Multicast
      • IPv6 Prefix Length
      • IPv6 Unicast
      • Leading Zeros
      • Link-local Address
      • Network Address Translation (NAT64)

      • Round Trip Time (RTT)
      • Route redirection
      • Router Advertisement
      • Router Solicitation
      • show ipv6 interface brief
      • show ipv6 route
      • Solicited node multicast
      • Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC)
      • Time exceeded
      • Tunneling
      • Unique Local Address
      • Unspecified Address

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